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Glass material

Glass materials
1. elements: Silica or silicon oxide is the main material of all glass products, which is available in the form of sand, flint or porcelain. Boric oxide is used as the main element in the manufacture of glass. 
2. Melting elements: These elements, such as sodium in the form of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, sodium acetate, lower the melting point of silica, giving the glass ion an alkaline state. 
3. Stabilizing elements: These materials are used to better mix the main and melting materials and also to prevent the glass from dissolving in different materials. Calcium carbonate is one of the most common stabilizers. 
4. Bleaching elements: use another color to neutralize one color in the glass paste; For example, they use green to neutralize red.

Method of production of colored glass

To color glass, metal oxides are used in its paste in the following order: 
1. Iron Oxide: A light, dark green color is obtained. Also, by adding cobalt oxide to it, very light blue is formed. 
2. Cream oxide: will give a green, yellow or blue-green color. 
3. Copper oxide: will usually turn green or blue-green. In some cases, it also produces red. Watering method The made glass object is then exposed to the heat of the furnace until it is completely melted. Then they put it in water and take it out quickly. In this way, small cracks appear in the body and then it is heated in the furnace so that the cracks weld together. After that, they continue to finish making the dish

Methods of making glass

 Blowing method 
Removing the molten material in the furnace by means of a preheated barrel or steam rod, fixing the molten material on the tip of the rod, marbleing or kneading and turning it on the work table and rounding it, reheating the glass paste on the rod head, blowing In the bar and create a small bubble in the middle of the bar head dough, cool the dough until it loses its redness, re-take the dough out of the oven and fix it on the tail bar, spoon the bar head dough or make it uniform. Which must be done for the master to start making glass. From this point on, the master takes the tail rod and rotates it to make the original shape of the container. It then molds it into the foot of the mold to create a groove at the junction of the glass and the metal rod. The catcher then attaches the catch rod to the bottom of the container and the master removes the tail rod from the groove of the container. After this stage, the work of shaping, manufacturing and polishing the opening and logo of the container begins. In the next step, he puts the handle and decorations on it. Finally, he pulls the container back with a clamp rod to take it to the greenhouse, then the oven is turned off so that the objects cool down as the air inside the oven cools down.

Blowing method in the mold method 
In this method, first some of the molten material is removed from the furnace with the tail rod, after preparation and blowing in it once, some material is added to it and heated. It is then placed in a mold and blown into a tail rod to form a glass paste. Then they are separated from the tail bar, the edge of the work is smoothed and it is taken to the greenhouse, such as bottles, lemon juice, rose water, etc.

Press method 
Making in air press molds is also used more for different types of bottles, in such a way that the appropriate amount of molten material is removed from the furnace with the tail rod and it is separated from the tail rod very quickly and placed in the press mold and closed by mold and pressure. The air entering the mold takes the desired shape of the dough. Then they open the mold, quickly take out the made object and put it in the greenhouse.

Glassmaking tools

Tools used in a traditional glass workshop: 
1. Burry (tail rod): A hollow and steel tube 120 to 150 cm long and 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter that is used to remove molten glass from the furnace.
2. Working stone: stone or metal cutting is used to heat the material on the tail bar.
3. Wooden spoon: in the form of a mortar that is always wet and acts as a mold. Water device: a rectangular cube metal pool that has water


Glassmaking is the art of shaping glass. In this art, the artist first heats the glass material to make it soft and semi-liquid; He then creates beautiful shapes with it by hand or special tools or blowing. It is very hot when the glass is taken out of the oven. The glassmaker picks up a piece of glass and places it on a hollow tube, blowing into it to inflate. The windshield wiper can make many things. Such as glasses, bottles and doors, windows, glasses or various types of eye lenses that are used in various devices such as magnifying glasses. Glass strips can also be made from glass. You can even soften the glass with the help of a flame and make decorative things out of it. Glass is used in many other things. Like mirrors, it can also be made from a type of heat-resistant glass called Pyrex, laboratory tools, and kitchen utensils. Shards of glass are also used} He also mentioned metal oxides such as cobalt oxide, copper, iron, manganese, sulfur and برای to color the glass charge. The art of glassmaking is complementary to a variety of construction and decoration techniques. Painting on glass is performed on the object with the necessary tools and depending on the type of pattern and colors used, one or more steps of baking in the oven are done with the appropriate heat. The paints used are in powder form and can be combined with special solvents and soluble paints are prepared from metal oxides. Shaving on glass is done by special stones and milling tools, which in the first case are deeper lines and are used more on containers. This stone is used in decoration with the ability to cut and matte.